Italians are not the only ones to benefit. The modern consumer`s insatiable search for $10 manicures, shiny new smartphones, and cheap stimulants comes at the expense of unfair work. Daily necessities associated with the slave trade include mobile phones, pet food, jewelry, and canned tomatoes. The 2018 Global Slavery Index found that G-20 countries import about $354 billion worth of products each year that are at risk of being produced by modern slavery. Across Italy, Nigerian women are slowly displacing the Eastern Europeans who once dominated the illegal sex industry. Most, like Gladys, come from Nigeria`s impoverished rural southwest, where a generation of young people seek fortunes abroad. Recruiters, often in the form of worried family friends, lure young women – and convince their parents – by promising to make money in Europe`s hair salons, hotels and shops. “In 2013, modern slavery takes many forms and is known by many names,” the report says. “Whether it is trafficking in human beings, forced labour, slavery or slavery-like practices (a category that includes debt bondage, coercion or submission, sale or exploitation of children, including armed conflict), victims of modern slavery have denied their freedom and are used, controlled and exploited by another person for profit, sexual or for the thrill of domination.
Mauritania recorded the worst death toll with about 150,000 people out of a population of 3.8 million, many of whom inherited their status from their parents. Slavery in the Sahel (and to a lesser extent in the Horn of Africa) exists along the racial and cultural boundaries of Arabized Berbers in the north and darker Africans in the south.  Slavery, particularly in the Sahelian states of Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad and Sudan, perpetuates a centuries-old pattern of hereditary servitude.  Other forms of traditional slavery exist in parts of Ghana, Benin, Togo and Nigeria.  In Africa today, there are other non-traditional forms of slavery, mainly involving human trafficking and the enslavement of child soldiers and child labourers, such as human trafficking in Angola and trafficking in children from Togo, Benin and Nigeria to Gabon and Cameroon.   Slavery was particularly prevalent in Eritrea and Mauritania, where slavery was sometimes even an institutionalized practice. In Eritrea, for example, President Isaias Afwerki`s one-party state oversaw a notorious national military service accused of enlisting citizens indefinitely, contributing to the wave of refugees fleeing the country. Workers who said they were forced to work in the country`s first modern mine are also currently suing Vancouver-based mining company Nevsun, which holds a majority stake in the mine. Biram Dah Abeid, often referred to as Mauritanian Nelson Mandela, “Spartacus Mauritania,” an anti-slavery activist and member of Mauritania`s Haratin ethnic group, says Iabarot is one of some 650,000 men and women who have crossed the Sahara over the past five years and dreamed of a better life in Europe. Some are fleeing war and persecution. Others, like Iabarot, leave villages where economic dysfunction and erratic rains make it impossible to find work or even enough to eat.
To undertake this harrowing journey, they use the services of trans-Saharan smugglers, who profit from filling their trucks with weapons, drugs and other contraband with human cargo. In Mauritania, hereditary slavery continues, although slave ownership was prohibited by law in 1981.  According to Amnesty International, Jok Madut Jok, a professor of history at Loyola Marymount University, states that the Abduction of Women and Children from the South by the North is slavery by definition. The Sudanese government insists that the whole issue is nothing more than the traditional tribal dispute over resources.  In 1981, Mauritania was one of the last countries in the world to ban slavery. Not only has the Government denied the existence of slavery and failed to respond to the cases brought to its attention, but it has also obstructed the activities of organizations working on the issue, including by refusing to grant them official recognition.  “We didn`t learn this story in school; We simply grew up in this social hierarchy and lived it. Slaves believe that if they do not obey their masters, they will not go to heaven.
 You grew up in a social and religious system that reinforces this idea every day.   The story of Biram Dah Abeid, a prominent anti-slavery activist in court, illustrates the troubled history and continued spread of slavery in Mauritania. Nevertheless, Mauritanian human rights activists remain hopeful and believe that the process will ultimately lead to positive long-term change.  Despite great legal progress in the form of the 1926 Slavery Convention, the 1956 United Nations Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, the 1976 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the 1957 Convention on the Abolition of Forced Labour, states and corporations are often complicit in crime, which maintains and maintains a system of political and economic government. and maintains the structural inequalities inherent in the global economy. The landscape of illegal work is further complicated by massive population movements following conflicts in North Africa and the Middle East. Vulnerable and vulnerable populations turn to organized networks of smugglers and traffickers who profit from human tragedies. A new offer of coercion and informality creates opportunities for exploitation that often fall into the definition category of “modern slavery” or other forms of “consensual exploitation” because of the economic desperation offered in exchange for inhuman treatment and substandard working conditions. According to the 2005 report of the Global Alliance Against Forced Labour, “80% of forced labour is in the private sector, mainly in the rural and informal sectors in developing countries, but also in the supply chain of large companies in both developing and developed countries”. Nevertheless, the application and criminalization of such practices remain elusive due to the architecture of modern demand and supply chains. Scientists even suggest that women are disproportionately affected by modern slavery, which sometimes involves sexual exploitation. “While great strides have been made in understanding modern slavery and the driving forces behind it, we still have a very long way to go if we are to end it forever,” Jasmine O`Connor, CEO of Anti-Slavery International, told DW.